Peering Week Articles on

I spent the first few days of St Patrick’s week last month in Leeds at the first of the two annual Euro-IX conferences on behalf of INEX. Trefor Davies, of, organised a series of articles called Peering Week on his blog to coincide with it:

During Peering Week we have had 18 excellent contributions from some of the people who run the internet in Europe. This might sound dramatic especially considering that the internet is made up of sixty or seventy thousand Autonomous Networks. The contributors this week run Internet Exchanges where a greats many of these networks connect to each other.

My contribution was about our IXP management system called IXP Manager – co-written by myself and Nick Hilliard for INEX. This tool is now being used to manage two IXPs in the UK, at least five more across Europe, a couple that we know about in the US and it is now the de facto choice for IXPs in Africa and Asia – where we are working with ISOC.

You can read the full article on Tref’s blog here: INEX’s IXP Manager – tools to help manage an Internet Exchange.

I’m glad to say that the good folks at Euro-IX helped ensure I wasn’t too homesick on St. Patricks’s Day – as the days proceedings wrapped up, we were greeted by:


Querying Cisco MST Port Roles via SNMP with OSS_SNMP

OSS_SNMP is a PHP SNMP library written by myself for people who hate SNMP. After a customer migration from PVST to MST (Multiple Spanning Tree), I have added a number of MST functions / MIBs to OSS_SNMP:

During a fairly significant network migration involving breaking / connecting a number of links, I wanted to be able to monitor the MST port role of significant ports at a glance. For this purpose, I wrote the mst-port-roles.php script and have committed it as an example to OSS_SNMP. First, here is what it looks like when run on the command line (with hostnames obfuscated):

MST Port RolesFrom a very simple array of port details at the top of the script, it will poll all switches and for each port print:

  • device and port name;
  • port state and speed;
  • port role for each applicable MST instance.

I run it on bash and use bash colouring. The script is well documented and can easily be repurposed for other networks. You’ll find the source here.

Useful RIPE Database Links

Some very useful RIPE database links that I was recently shown include:

Bird / Quagga with MD5 Support for IPv4/6 on FreeBSD & Linux

Over in INEX we run a route server cluster which alleviates the burden of setting up bilateral peering sessions for the more than 80% of the members that use them. The current hardware is now about six years old and we have a forklift upgrade in the works.

BGP allows for MD5 authentication between clients (using the TCP MD5 signature option, see RFC 2385) and – while recently obsoleted in RFC 5925 – it is still widely used in shared LAN mediums such as IXPs; primarily to prevent packet spoofing and session hijacking via recycled IP addresses.

Our current route server implementation runs on FreeBSD which does not support TCP MD5 in its stock kernel (you are required to compile a custom kernel – see below for details). Additionally, specifying the session MD5 is not done in the BGP daemon configuration but separately in the IPsec configuration. Lastly, our current FreeBSD version has no support for TCP MD5  over IPv6. These have all led to unnecessarily complex configurations and a degree of confusion.

Because of this, we decided to test up to date Linux and FreeBSD versions for native IPv4 and IPv6 TCP MD5 support with Bird and Quagga (our route server daemons of choice).

In each case, BGP sessions were tested for:

  • no MD5 on each end (expected to work);
  • same MD5 on each end (expected to work);
  • different MD5 on each end (expected not to work); and
  • MD5 on one end with no MD5 on the other end (expected not to work).

For Linux, the platform chosen was Ubuntu 12.04 LTS with the stock 3.2.0-40-generic kernel.

  • Sessions were tested for Quagga to Quagga and Quagga to Bird;
  • Sessions were tested over both IPv4 and IPv6;
  • The presence of valid MD5 signatures were confirmed using tcpdump -M xxx;
  • Stock Quagga and Bird from the 12.04 apt repositories were used.

The results – everything worked and worked as expected:

  • BGP sessions only established when expected (no MD5 configured, same MD5 configured);
  • This held for both IPv4 and IPv6.

Summary: Linux will support TCP MD5 nativily for IPv4 and IPv6 when using Quagga or Bird.

For FreeBSD, we used the latest production release of 9.1. TCP MD5 support is not compiled in by default so a custom kernel must be built with the additional options of:

options   IPSEC
device    crypto
device    cryptodev

In addition to this, the MD5 shared secrets need to be added to the IPsec SA/SD database via the setkey utility or, preferably, via the /etc/ipsec.conf file which, for example, would contain entries for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses such as:

add tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "supersecret1";
add 2001:db8::1 2001:db8::2 tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "supersecret2";

where the addresses ending in .1/:1 are local and .2/:2 are the BGP neighbor addresses. This file can be processed by setting ipsec_enable="YES" in /etc/rc.conf and executing /etc/rc.d/ipsec reload.

  • Sessions were tested for Quagga/Linux to Quagga/FreeBSD and  from Quagga/Linux to Bird/FreeBSD;
  • Sessions were tested over both IPv4 and IPv6;
  • The presence of valid MD5 signatures were confirmed using tcpdump -M xxx;
  • Stock Quagga from the 12.04 apt repositories and stock Quagga and Bird from FreeBSD ports were used.

The results – almost everything worked and worked as expected:

  • BGP sessions only established when expected (no MD5 configured, same MD5 configured);
  • This held for both IPv4 and IPv6;
  • one odd but expected behavior – you only need to set the MD5 via setkey / ipsec.conf – setting it (or not) in the Quagga and Bird config has no effect so long as it is set via setkey (but is useful for documentation purposes). However, trying to set it in Quagga without having rebuilt the kernel will result in an error.

Summary: FreeBSD will support TCP MD5 via a custom kernel and setkey / ipsec.conf for IPv4 and IPv6. Note that there is an additional complexity when changing or removing MD5 passwords as these need to be amended / deleted via setkey which can put an extra burden on automatic route server configuration generators.

NOCtools and OSS_SNMP Get Support for Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) Protocol

NOCtools (a mixed bag collection of tools and utilities for NOC engineers) and OSS_SNMP (a PHP SNMP Library for People Who HATE SNMP, MIBs and OIDs) have just gotten support for Multiple Spanning Tree.

Specifically, OSS_SNMP has two new MIBS (Cisco’s original MST tree which has a lot of deprecated nodes – MIBS\Cisco\MST; and the newer IEEE tree – MIBS\Cisco\SMST). With these, we can, for example, get an array of [instanceID] => instanceName values from a switch by just coding:

$ciscosw = new \OSS_SNMP\SNMP( $ip, $community );
print_r( $ciscosw->useCisco_SMST()->instances() );

NOCtools has the more impressive use cases of these new features. Specifically (and just likes its RSTP/pvrspt functionality), it can:

  • Show MST port roles (root, designated, alternate, etc) for a given (or all) MST instance(s) – this is equivalent to the RSTP version;
  • From a given device, it can crawl all CDP neighbours and create a graph of all devices, their connecting ports and the MST roles of those ports. This is a really useful feature as it means you don’t need to log into multiple switches to get a handle on what links are blocking. See documentation and a sample diagram here.